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消费者行为(英文版)11

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消费者分析  
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CONSUMER BEH****IOR 1111-1-1 Fourth Edition Michael R. Solomon CChhaapptteerr 1111 Group Influence and Opinion Leadership Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall RReeffeerreennccee 1111-2-2 GGrrAooRuuefpeprsesnce Group is an Actual or I****ginary Individual or Group Conceived of Having Significant Relevance Upon an Individual’s Evaluations, Aspirations, or Behavior. Reference Groups Influence Consumers in Three Ways: IInnffoorrm****attiioonnaall VVaalluuee--EExxpprreessssiivvee UUttiilliittaarriiaann Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall IInnfflluueennccee aanndd TTyyppeess 1111-3-3 ooff RR•eeNffoeerrmreeanntivcceeeInGGflurreoonucueppss – Reference group helps to set and enforce fundamental standards of conduct. (i.e. family) • Comparative Influence – Reference group affects decisions about specific brands or activities. (i.e. club) • For****l Versus Infor****l Groups – S****ll, infor****l groups are more common and important to us because of their high Nor****tive Influence. – Larger, for****l groups tend to be higher in Comparative Influence. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall MMeemmbbeerrsshhiipp VVeerrssuuss 1111-4-4 AAssppiirraattiioonnaall RReTehffeeerLreieknenlcicheoeoGdGTrrohoauut pPpessople Will Become Part of a Consumer’s Identificational Reference Group is Affected By: PPrrooppiinnqquuiittyy MMeerree GGrroouupp EExxppoossuurree CCoohheessiivveenneessss Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall WWhheenn RReeffeerreennccee GGrroouuppss 1111-5-5 AArree IImmppoorrttaanntt A Reference LLuuxxuurriieess Groups Influence RRaatthheerrTThhaann Is More Powerful NNeecceessssiittiieess and Important SSoocciiaallllyy for Purchases CCoonnssppiiccuuoouuss oorrVViissiibblleettoo That Are: OOtthheerrss Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall TThhee PPoowweerr ooff RReeffeerreennccee 1111-6-6 GGrroouuppss CCooeerrcciivvee SSoocciiaall PPoowweerr PPoowweerr RReewwaarrdd Types of RReeffeerreenntt PPoowweerr Reference PPoowweerr EExxppeerrtt Group IInnffoorrm****attiioonn PPoowweerr Power PPoowweerr LLeeggiittiim****attee PPoowweerr Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall CCoonnffoorrmmii 1111-7-7 ttyyConformity Refers to a Change in Beliefs or Actions as a Reaction to Real or I****gined Group Pressure. TTyyppeessooffSSoocciiaallIInnfflluueennccee NNoorrm****attiivvee IInnffoorrm****attiioonnaall PPeerrssoonnCCoonnffoorrmmssttooMMeeeett CCoonnffoorrmmitityyTThhaattOOccccuurrssBBeeccaauussee tthheeEExxppeeccttaattioionnssooffaa tthheeGGrroouupp’s’sBBeehhaavvioiorrisisTTaakkeenn PPeerrssoonnoorrGGrroouupp.. aassEEvvidideenncceeAAbboouuttRReeaaliltityy.. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall FFaaccttoorrss AAffffeeccttiinngg tthhee 1111-8-8 LLiikkeelliihhoooodd ooff CCCCououlltntnuurfrafaololPPrrrrememssssiuuitrtreyeyss FFeeaarrooffDDeevviiaannccee CCoommmmiittmmeenntt GGrroouuppDDyynnaammiiccss SSeexxDDiiffffeerreenncceess IInntteerrppeerrssoonnaallIInnfflluueenncceess Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall SSoocciiaall 1111-9-9 CCoommppaarriissoonn • Social Comparison Theory assets that we look to the behavior of others to provide a yardstick about reality as a way to increase the stability of one’s self-evaluation. • Consumers are selective about whom they use for bench****rks. • In general, people tend to choose a Co- Oriented Peer, or a person of equivalent standing when performing social comparisons. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall CCoommpplliiaannccee aanndd 1111-1-100 OTOhebbWeeaddy iaieeRnenqcuceeest for Compliance is Phrased or Structured Can Make a Difference in Acceptance. FFoooott--iinn--tthhee--DDoooorr MMMMaaakakkekeeeaaaaLSLaSamrmrgagealelrllrROROenenqeqeuuLeLeasasttetteFrFr.ir.irsst,t,TThheenn LLooww--BBaalll l TTeecchhnniiqquuee TPThPehaeratrstsToToununrirnsinsssAAOsOsukuktetedtdotofofBoBrereaCaCSoSomsmstaltayllyll.l.FFaavvoorr DDoooorr--iinn--tthhee--FFaaccee TMThMhaeaeknkneeaaaaRnRneEeaEaxsxstotrorenen********bebelelReRReReqeqeuquqeueusesetstsFtFtiLriLrsasattt,et,err.. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall GGrroouupp EEffffeeccttss oonn IInnddiivviidduuaall 1111-1-111 BBeehhaavviioorr DDeeiinnddiivviidduu-- DDeecciissiioonn aalliissmm PPoollaarriizzaattiioonn SSoocciiaall GGrroouupp SShhooppppiinngg LLooaaffiinngg EEffffeeccttss BBeehhaavviioorr RRiisskkyy BBaannddwwaaggoonn SShhiifftt EEffffeecctt Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall RReessiissttaannccee ttoo 1111-1-122 IInnfflluueennccee Independence Anticomformity Deep-Seated Need to Defiance of the Group Preserve Freedom of is the Object of Behavior Choice Vs. Reactance People try to Overcome a Loss of Freedom Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall WWoorrdd--ooff--MMoouutthh 1111-1-133 CCooMmmuchmmInufuornnmiaicctioaanttAiibooonunt Products and Services is Actually Conveyed by Individuals on an Infor****l Basis called Word-of- Mouth Communication (WOM). Factors That Encourage WOM Are: PPeerrssoonn iiss HHiigghhllyy IInnvvoollvveedd WWiitthh tthhee PPrroodduucctt PPeerrssoonn iiss HHiigghhllyy KKnnoowwlleeddggeeaabbllee AAbboouutt tthhee PPrroodduucctt PPeerrssoonn HHaass aa GGeennuuiinnee CCoonncceerrnn ffoorr SSoommeeoonnee EEllssee PPeerrssoonn MMaayy bbee UUnncceerrttaaiinn AAbboouutt aa RReecceenntt PPuurrcchhaassee Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall NNeeggaattiivvee WWoorrdd--ooff-- 1111-1-144 MMoouutthh • Negative Word-of-Mouth: – Is weighted more heavily by consumers than positive comments. – Has been shown to reduce the credibility of a firm’s advertising. – May influence consumers’ attitudes toward a product as well as their intention to buy it. • Rumors are the chief form of negative WOM. – Rumors often result in Boycotts of products, companies, or services. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall OOppiinniioonn 1111-1-155 LLAeenaaOdpdineeiorrnssLeader is Someone Who is Knowledgeable About Products and Whose Advice is Taken Seriously By Others. Are Often Among Are Technically the First to Buy Competent and New Products Have Expert Power Are Similar to OOppiinniioonn HHaavveePPrreessccrreeeenneedd,, the Consumer in LLeeaaddeerrss EEvvaalluuaatteedd,,aanndd SSyynntthheessiizzeedd Values and Are Socially Beliefs Active in PPrroodduuccttIInnffoorrm****attiioonn Their Community Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall EExxtteenntt ooff AAnn OOppiinniioonn 1111-1-166 LLeeaaddeerr’’ss IInnfflluueennccee • Very few people are Generalized Opinion Leaders, someone whose recommendations are sought for all types of purchases. • More likely, opinion leaders are either: – Monomorphic, or an expert in a limited field. – Polymorphic, or an expert in several fields. • Even opinion leaders who are Polymorphic, tend to concentrate on one broad do****in, such as electronics or fashion. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall CChhaarraacctteerriissttiiccss ooff 1111-1-177 OOppiinniioonn LLeeaaddeerrss AArreeOOppiinniioonn IInnnnoovvaattoorrss SSeeeekkeerrss OOwwnnMMoorree KKeeyy CCoommmmEuEuananririclclyyaattoorrss CCllootthhiinnggWWiitthhaa CChhaarraaccteterrisistitcicss SSAoAocccctitiaiaivlvllelyey BBrrooaaddeerrRRaannggee ooff ooffSSttyylleess OOppininioionn MMuuLsLsiiikickceeaanndd LLeeaaddeerrss MMaaggaazziinneess AAppppeeaarraannccee-- CCoNoNnanasrsrcccciiisiososusuisissstatiaicn****d Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall IIddeennttiiffyyiinngg OOppiinniioonn 1111-1-188 LMLaeerkaaedtdereserArrsse Interested in Identifying Opinion Leaders Because They Influence Consumer Decision Making. SSeellff--DDeessiiggnnaattiinnggMMeetthhoodd BBoonnaaFFiiddeeOOppiinniioonnLLeeaaddeerr KKeeyyIInnffoorrm****anntt SSoocciioommeettrriiccMMeetthhoodd EExxaammiinneessRReeffeerrrraallBBeehhaavviioorr EExxaammiinneessCClliiqquueessaannddNNeettwwoorrkkss Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall
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