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消费者行为(英文版)02

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消费者分析  
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CONSUMER BEH****IOR 22-1-1 Fourth Edition Michael R. Solomon CChhaapptteerr 22 Perception Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall SSeennssaattiioonn aanndd PPeerrcceeppttiioonn 22-2-2 • Sensation – Refers to the immediate response of our sensory receptors (eyes, ears, nose, mouth, fingers) to such basic stimuli as light, color, and sound. – Perception – Process by which these sensations are selected, organized, and interpreted. – People only process a s****ll amount of infor****tion (stimuli). – An even s****ller amount is attended to and given meaning. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall TThhee PPeerrcceeppttiioonn PPrroocceessss 22-3-3 STIMULI or SENSORY INPUTS SSeennssaattioionn EExxppoossuurree AAtttteennttiioonn IInntteerrpprreettaattiioonn MMeeaanniinngg RReessppoonnssee PPeerrcceeppttiioonn Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall SSeennssoorryy SSyysstteemmss 22-4-4 VViissiioonn • Visual Elements in Advertising, SSmmeellll Store Design and Packaging. SSoouunndd • Odors Can Stir Emotions or Create TToouucchh Feelings Such as Happiness/ Hunger. TTaassttee • Research Has Analyzed Effects of : Background Music & Speaking Rates • Shown to Be a Factor in Sales Interactions. • Ethnicity Affects Taste Preferences. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall EExxppoossuurree 22-5-5 • Degree to which people notice a stimulus that is within range of their sensory receptors. • Consumers: – Concentrate on some stimuli, – Are unaware of others, – Even go out of their way to ignore some messages. • Pychophysics - Science that focuses on how the physical environment is integrated into our personal, subjective world. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall SSeennssoorryy TThhrreesshhoollddss 22-6-6 Lowest Intensity of a Stimulus That Consumers are Capable of Perceiving: AAbbssoolluutteeTThhrreesshhoolldd DDiiffffeerreennttiiaallTThhrreesshhoolldd rreeffeerrssttootthhee rreeffeerrssttootthheeaabbiilliittyy mmiinniimmuum****ammoouunntt ooffaasseennssoorryyssyysstteemm ooffssttiimmuullaattiioonntthhaatt ttooddeetteeccttcchhaannggeessoorr ccaannbbeeddeetteecctteeddoonn ddiiffffeerreenncceessbbeettwweeeenn aasseennssoorryycchhaannnneell.. ttwwoossttiimmuullii..((jj..nn..dd..-- MMaarrkkeettiinnggSSttiimmuullii JJuussttNNoottiicceeaabbllee DDiiffffeerreennccee&& WWeebbeerr’’ssLLaaww)) Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall SSuubblliimmiinnaall PPeerrcceeppttiioonn 22-7-7 Subliminal Perception EEmmbbeeddss Occurs When The Stimulus Is Below The Level Of The TTiinnyyFFiigguurreessiinnPPrriinntt AAddvveerrttiissiinngg Consumer’s Awareness. Auditory Messages SSuubblliimmiinnaall TTeecchhnniiqquueess Messages on Sound Recordings Low-Level Auditory Stimulation Threshold Messaging Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall DDooeess SSuubblliimmiinnaall PPeerrcceeppttiioonn WWoorrkk?? 22-8-8 TThhrreesshhoolldd DDiissttaannccee aanndd DDiiffffeerreenncceess PPoossiittiioonn CCoonnttrrooll IInnfflluueennccee ooff SSuubblliimmiinnaall MMeessssaaggeess VViieewwiinngg GGeenneerraalliizzeedd AAtttteennttiioonn CCoonnttrrooll EEffffeecctt Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall AAtttteennttiioonn 22-9-9 • Refers to the extent to which processing activity is devoted to a particular stimulus. • Consumers often suffer Sensory Overload, exposure to far more infor****tion than they are capable of or willing to process. • Example: More than 6000 TV commercials are run each week. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall PPeerrcceeppttuuaall SSeelleeccttiioonn 22-1-100 Perceptual Selection Means that People Pay Attention to Only a S****ll Portion of Stimuli to Which They Are Exposed. How do Consumers Choose What to Pay Attention To? EExxppeerriieennccee RReessuullttooffAAccqquuiirriinnggIInnffoorrm****attiioonnOOvveerrTTiimmee PPeerrcceeppttuuaall FFiilltteerrss PPaassttEExxppeerriieenncceessIInnfflluueenncceessWWhhaattWWeeDDeecciiddeettooPPrroocceessss PPeerrcceeppttuuaal l PPeerrcceeppttuuaall AAddaappttaattiioonn VViiggiillaannccee DDeeffeennssee Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall AAddaappttaattiioonn 22-1-111 IInntteennssiittyy RReelleevvaannccee Factors DDuurraattiioonn Leading to Adaptation EExxppoossuurree DDiissccrriimmiinnaattiioonn Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall PPeerrcceeppttuuaall SSeelleeccttiioonn 22-1-122 How do Consumers Choose What to Pay Attention To? Stimulus Selection Factors SSiizzee Create Contrast so That Stimuli is CCoolloorr More Likely to Be Noticed. Remember Weber’s Law. PPoossiittiioonn NNoovveellttyy Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall IInntteerrpprreettaattiioonn 22-1-133 • Refers to the meaning that we assign to sensory stimuli. • Consumers assign meaning to stimuli based on Sche****, or set of beliefs, to which the stimuli is assigned. – The sche**** will determine what criteria will be used to evaluate the: – product, – package, – message. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall SSttiimmuulluuss OOrrggaanniizzaattiioonn 22-1-144 The Gestalt Perspective (Sum****rized as “The Whole is Greater Than the Sum of It’s Parts) Provides Several Principles Relating to the Way Stimuli Are Organized: Closure Principle PPrriinncciipplleeooffSSiimmiillaarriittyy People Tend to Perceive OCOCobobnjnjesescucutmtsmsTeTerhrshasaTtTteSeSnhnhdadartrteoeoSGSGimrimrooiuliualpaprr an Incomplete Picture as CChhaaPrPrhahacycytstesiecricraisailstlticicss.. Whole. FFiigguurree--GGrroouunnddPPrriinncciippllee OODDnoneomemPPianianraratttteoeof(f(ttththhheeeeFSFSitgitigmiumurureuel)ul)uWsWsWhWhiililielllel OOtthheert(rth(tPhthePheaeaBerBrGtaGtsacsrcRkroRkodueduercnrcnoedoedpdd)pe)eIInnttoo Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall PPeerrcceeppttuuaall PPoossiittiioonniinngg 22-1-155 Positioning Strategy Uses Elements of the Marketing Mix to Influence the Consumer’s Interpretation of It’s Meaning. QQuuaalliittyy LLiiffeessttyyllee UUsseerrss Positioning PPrriicceeLLeeaaddeerrsshhiipp OOccccaassiioonnss Dimensions AAttttrriibbuutteess CCoommppeettiittoorrss PPrroodduucctt CCllaassss Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall RReeppoossiittiioonniinngg 22-1-166 Repositioning Occurs When a Brand’s Original Market Position is Modified Because: Current Brand is “Cannibalizing” Other Brands in Product Line. Too Many Competitors Are Stressing the Same Attribute. Original Market Evaporates or Is Unreceptive to the Offering. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall
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