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快速掌握英语六级语法

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英语六级  
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虚拟语气用法详解 一、 条件句中的虚拟语气 1. 条件句中虚拟语气的形式 从句中提出一种与客观现实不相符或根本不可能存在的条件,主句会产生的一种不可能 获得的结果。条件句中的虚拟语气根据不同的时间有三种不同的形式。 时间 从句谓语形式 主句谓语形式 将来 动词过去式(be 用 were) would / should / might / could + 动词原形 should + 动词原形 were to + 动词原形 现在 动词过去式(be 用 were) would / should / might / could + 动词原形 would / should / might / could have + 动词过去分词 过去 had +动词过去分词 2. 中的虚拟语气的举例 (1) 将来时的条件句中的虚拟语气。如: If he should go to Qing Hua University, he would ****ke full use of his time. 如果他要上清华大 学的话,他就会充分利用他的时间了。 If he were to come here, he would tell us about it. 如果他要来的话,他会通知我们一声。 (2) 现在时的条件句中的虚拟语气。如: If he were free, he would help us. 要是他有空的话,它会帮助我们的。 If he stu****d at this school, he would know you well. 如果他在这所学校学习的话,它会对你 很熟悉。 (3) 过去时的条件句中的虚拟语气。如: If I had seen the film, I would have told you about it. 我如果看过这场电影,我会把电影内容 告诉你了。 If I had got there earlier, I would have met Mr. Li. 如果我早点到那儿,我就会会到了李先生。 3. 运用条件句中的虚拟语气时,须注意的几个问题 (1) 当从句的主语为第三人称单数时,谓语动词若是系动词 be 时,可用 was 代替 were。 但在倒装虚拟结构及 if I were you, as it were 中,只能用 were。如: Were I ten years younger, I would study abroad. 要是我还年轻十岁的话,我会去国外学习。 If I were you, I would try my best to grasp the chance. 要是我是你的话,我要尽力抓住这次 机会。 (2) 有时,虚拟条件句中,主、从句的动作若不是同时发生时,须区别对待。 ① 从句的动作与过去事实相反,而主句的动作与现在或现在正在发生的事实不符。如: If I had worked hard at school, I would be an engineer, too. 如果我在学校学习刻苦的话,我 现在也会使工程师了 If they had informed us, we would not come here now. 如果他们通知过我们的话,我们现在 就不会来这里了。 ② 从句的动作与现在事实相反,而主句的动作与过去事实不符。如: If he were free today, we would have sent him to Beijing. 如果他今天有空的话,我们会已经 派他去****了(from ****.yygram****r****)。 If he knew her, he would have greeted her. 要是他认识她的话,他肯定会去问候她了。 ③ 从句的动作与过去发生的情况相反,而主句的动作与现在正在发生的情况相反。如: If it had not been raining too much, the crops would be growing much better. 如果天不下太多 的雨的话,庄家会长得更好。 If he had been working hard, he would be working in the office now. 要是他工作一直努力的 话,他现在已进了办公室了 (3) 当虚拟条件句的谓语动词含有 were, should, had 时,if 可省略,而将 were, should, had 等词置于句首。如: Should he agree to go there, we would send him there. 要是他答应去的话,我们就派他去。 Were she here, she would agree with us. 如果她在这儿的话,她会同意我们的。 Had he learnt about computers, we would have hired him to work here. 如果她懂一些电脑知 识的话,我们会已经聘用他来这里工作了(from ****.yygram****r****)。 (4) 有时,句子没有直接给出假设情况的条件,而须通过上下文或其他方式来判断。如: I would have come to see you, but I was too busy. 我本该来看你了,然而我太忙了。 But for his help, we would be working now. 要不是他的帮助,我们还会在工作呢。 Without your instruction, I would not have ****de such great progress. 要是没有你的指导,我 不会取得如此大的进步。 (5) 有时,虚拟条件句中,主、从句可以省略其中的一个,来表示说话人的一种强烈的感 情。 ① 省略从句 He would have finished it. 他本该完成了。 You could have passed this exam. 你应该会通过这次考试了。 ② 省略主句 If I were at home now. 要是我现在在家里该多好啊。 If only I had got it. 要是我得到它了该多好啊。 二、其他状语从句的虚拟语气 1. 目的状语从句中的虚拟语气 (1) 在 for fear that, in case, lest 引导的目的状语从句中,若用虚拟语气时,从句谓语为: should + 动词原形。并且 should 不能省略 She examined the door again for fear that a thief should come in. 她又把门检查了一遍,以 防盗贼的进入。 He started out earlier lest he should be late. 他很早就出发了以防迟到。 (2) 在 so that, in order that 所引导的目的状语从句中,从句中的谓语为: can / ****y / could / might / will / would / should + 动词原形。如(from ****.yygram****r****): He goes closer to the speaker so that he can hear him clearer. 他走近说话的人以便能挺得更 清楚。 He read the letter carefully in order that he should not miss a word. 他把信读得很仔细以便不 漏掉一个单词。 2. 让步状语从句中的虚拟语气 (1) 在 even if, even though 所引导的让步状语从句中,可用虚拟语气,主句、从句的结构 与 if 所引导的条件从句结构相同。如: Even if he were here himself, he should not know what to do. 即使他亲自来也不知该怎么办。 Nobody could save him even though Hua Tuo should come here. 即使华佗在世也救不了他。 (2) 在 whatever, whichever,whenever,whoever, wherever,however, no ****tter wh-word 等引导的让步状语从句中,从句虚拟语气结构为: ① ****y +动词原形(指现在或将来)。如: We will finish it on time no ****tter what / whatever ****y happen. 不管发生什么事,我们都要 按时完成。 We will find him wherever / no ****tter where he ****y be. 无论他在哪里,我们都要找到他。 I will wait for him no ****tter how late he ****y come. 不管他来的多么晚,我都会等他。 ② ****y +完成式(指过去) ,主句结构不限。如: You mustn’t be proud whatever / no ****tter what great progress you ****y have ****de. 不管你取 得了多么大的进步,你也不能骄傲(from ****.yygram****r****)。 We must respect him no ****tter what / whatever mistakes he ****y have ****de. 不管他翻过什么 错误,我们必须尊敬他。 (3) 在 though, although 等引导的让步状语从句中,从句虚拟语气结构为 should +动词原 形,主句结构不限。如: Although / Though he should often be late, he is a good student. 尽管他经常迟到,他还是个 好学生。 Although / Though he should be secretary, he must obey the rules. 尽管他是书记,他也必须 遵守规定。 3. 方式状语从句中的虚拟语气 as if, as though 引导的方式状语从句常用虚拟语气。虚拟语气的结构为: 表示所发生的时间 虚拟语气结构 发生在主句动作之前 had + 过去分词 与主句动作同时发生 过去时(be 用 were ) 发生在主句动作之后 would / could / might / should+原形动词 例如: They began to talk warmly as if they had known each other for long. 他们开始热烈的谈论起 来就好像他们已相互认识很久了。 He coughed twice as if someone should come. 他咳嗽两声就好像有人要来了。 4. 原因状语从句中的虚拟语气 a****zed, angry, annoyed, astonished, disappointed, frightened, happy, pleased, proud, sorry, surprised, upset 等后面的状语从句中常用虚拟语气。其虚拟语气的结构为: ① should + 原形动词(指现在或将来)。如: He was angry that you should call him by name. 他很生气,你竟然对他直呼其名。 I was astonished that he should not answer such an easy question. 我很惊讶他竟答不出如此 简单的问题。 ② should + 完成式, 指过去。如: I’m very sorry that you should have failed the exam. 我很遗憾,你这次考试竟然失败了。 I was very surprised that Father should have known what I did yesterday. 我很吃惊,父亲竟 指导我昨天所作的事情(from ****.yygram****r****)。 三、宾语从句中的虚拟语气 1 . 英 语 中 , 如 : advise, ask, de****nd, desire, decide, insist( 坚 决 要 求 ) , order, propose, request, suggest(建议) 表示请求、要求、命令或建议等意义的动词所接的宾语从句一般用虚拟 语气,其虚拟语气的结构为:(should) + 原形动词。如: The teacher advised that we should ****ke good use of every minute here. 老师劝我们要好好地 利用在这儿的每一分钟。 The Party asked that we should serve the people with our heart and soul. 党要求我们要全心 全意地为****服务。 但是,当 insist 的意思为:坚决认为,坚持说;suggest 的意思为:表明,暗含,暗示等 时,宾语从句一般不用虚拟语气。如: Tom insisted that he hadn’t stolen the watch. 汤姆坚持说他没有偷那块手表。 His smile suggested that he had succeeded in this exam. 他的微笑表明他在考试中成功了。 2. believe, expect, suspect, think, i****gine 等动词的否定句或疑问句中的宾语从句常用虚拟 语气。其虚拟语气的结构为: should + 原形动词。如: Can you believe that he should kill a tiger? 你能相信他竟杀死了一只老虎? Can you i****gine that he should take the first place in the long jump contest? 你能想象得到他 在跳远比赛中竟获得了第一名? 3. 英语中,wish 之后的宾语从句,表示一种没有实现或根本不可能实现的愿望,常用虚 拟语气。其虚拟语气的结构为(from ****.yygram****r****): 表示所发生的时间 虚拟语气结构 发生在主句动作之前 (1)had + 过去分词; (2)would / could / might / should + have + 过去分词 与主句动作同时发生 过去时(be 用 were ) 发生在主句动作之后 would / could / might / should + 原形动词 例如:I wish I learnt English well. 我希望我已学好了英语。 I wish I had been there with them last week. 我希望上周跟他们一起在那儿。 He wishes we could go and play games with him. 他希望我们能去跟他做游戏。 4. 英语中,would rather, had rather, would sooner 等之后的宾语从句常表示与客观事实不 相符的一种愿望,故使用虚拟语气。其虚拟语气的结构为: 表示所发生的时间 虚拟语气结构 过去 had + 过去分词; 现在 过去时(be 用 were ) 将来 过去时(be 用 were ) 例如:I’d rather you had seen the film yesterday. 我倒想你昨天看过了这场电影。 I’d rather you were here now. 我倒想你现在在这儿。 We’d rather you went here tomorrow. 我么倒想你明天去那儿。 四、主语从句中的虚拟语气 在表达惊异、惋惜、遗憾、理应如此等意义的主语从句中常使用虚拟语气,其虚拟语其的 结构为: should + 动词原形,主句中的谓语动词形式不限。 句型: (1) It is admirable / dreadful / extraordinary / odd / re****rkable / sad / advisable / annoying / disappointing / surprising / upsetting / frightening / better / best / curious / desirable / important / strange / peculiar / proper / necessary / natural …that… (2) It is a pity / a shame / no wonder…. that… (3) It is suggested / requested / desired / proposed /…. that … (4) It worries me that… 如:It is important that we should do well in our lessons first. 我们先把功课学好很重要。 It is strange that he should not come. 很奇怪,他竟没有来。 It is a pity that we should not meet last night. 真遗憾我们昨天晚上没有见过面。 It worries me that we should be blamed for that. 我们竟要受责备真让人烦恼。 五、表语从句及同位语从句中虚拟语气 英语中,表示请求、要求、命令、建议等名词 advice, desire, decision, idea, instruction, order, plan, proposal, recommendation, request, requirement, suggestion, wish 充当句子的主语而后面接 表语从句或它们后面接同位语时,表语从表面上看几屗及同位语从句都须用虚拟语气。其虚 拟语气的结构为:(should) + 动词原形。如: We followed his advice that we should ask our teacher for help. 我们接受了他的建议:我们 应该请求老师的帮助(from ****.yygram****r****)。 He told us his idea that he should go to university. 他告诉了我们他的想法:他想上大学。 His suggestion is that we should do our work more carefully. 他的建议就是我们的工作要更 细心些。 Their plan is that they should build a new factory in their hometown. 他们的计划就是在家乡 建一座新工厂。 六、定语从句中的虚拟语气 英语中,表示:“早该做某事了”时,定语从句中的谓语动词须用虚拟语气,其虚拟语气 的结构为:It is (high / about) time that + 主语+ 动词的过去式/ should + 动词原形。如: It is time that I went to pick up my daughter at school. 我该去学校接我的女儿了。 It is high time you should go to work. 你早该上班了。 7. 简单句中的虚拟语气 1. 说话时,为了表示客气、谦虚、委婉而有礼貌,言语常使用虚拟语气。其虚拟语气的结 构形式常为:would / could / might / should + 原形动词。如: Would you mind my shutting the door? 我把门关起来你介意吗? You should always learn this lesson by heart. 你要把这个教训牢记于心。 I should agree with you. 我应该同意你的观点。 2. 表示“祝愿”时,常用“****y + 主语 + 动词原形 + 其他”。如: May you have a good journey! 祝你一路顺风。 May your youth last for ever! 祝你青春永驻。 3. 表示强烈的“愿望”、“祝愿”时,常用动词原形。如: Long live the Communist Party of China. 中国******万岁。 God bless us. 上帝保佑。 4. 习惯表达中常用的虚拟语气。 (1) 提出请求或邀请。如: Would you like to have a talk with us this evening? 今天晚上来跟我们聊天好吗? Could I use your bike now? 我可以用一下你的单车吗? (2) 陈述自己的观点或看法。如: I should glad to meet you. 见到你我会很高兴。 I would try my best to help you. 我会尽力帮助你。 (3) 提出劝告或建议。如: You’d better ask your father first. 你最好先问一问你的父亲。 You should ****ke a full investigation of it first. 你应该先全面调查一番。 (4) 提出问题。如: Do you think he could get here on time? 你认为他能按时来吗? Do you expect he would tell us the truth? 你期望他会告诉我们****吗? (5) 表示对过去情况的责备时,常用虚拟语气。其虚拟语气的结构为:“情态动词 + have + 过去分词”。如: You should have got here earlier. 你应该早就到这里了。 You should have returned it to him. 你应该把他还给他了。 wish 后宾语从句用虚拟语气 一、用法说明 动词 wish 后接宾语从句时,从句谓语要用虚拟语气。若要表示与现在事实相反的愿望, 从句谓语用一般过去时或过去进行时;若表示与过去相反的愿望,从句谓语用过去完成时或 would / could+have +过去分词;若表示将来没有把握或不太可能实现的愿望,用 would (could)+动词原形。如: I wish I were not so busy. 但愿我不那样忙碌。 I wish I were [was] better looking. 要是我长得漂亮些就好了。 She wished she had stayed at home. 她后悔的是她当时要是留在家里就好了。 I wish you would go with us tomorrow. 要是你明天同我们一起去就好了。 I wish you wouldn’t look down on this kind of work. 我希望你不要看不起这种工作。 This watch has gone wrong. I wish I had bought a better ****ke. 这只表坏了,我真愿意我买 的是好一点的牌子。 I wish you wouldn’t smoke any more. 我希望你不再抽烟了。 I wish you would be more respectful to your father. 我希望你对你父亲更尊敬些。 I wish I could be of some use. 我希望我能有什么用处。 二、特别注意 从句的时态只与从句所指的时间有关,而与 wish 的时态无关,比较: I wish I were rich. 要是我现在有钱就好了。 I wish I had been rich. 要是那时我有钱就好了。 I wished I were rich. 当时我后悔自己没有钱。 I wished I had been rich. 当时我后悔自己曾经没有钱。 if only 后的句子用虚拟语气 if only 与 I wish 一样,也用于表示与事实相反的愿望,其后所虚拟语气的时态与 wish 后 所接时态的情况相同: If only she had had more courage! 她再勇敢一些就好了。 If only it would stop raining! 雨要是停了就好了。 If only he didn’t drive so fast. 但愿他车没开得那么快。 If only I were [was] better looking. 要是我长得漂亮些就好了。 If only I had listened to my parents! 我要是当时听了父母的话就好了。 If only she would go with me! 她要是愿意和我一道去就好了! 【友情提示】if only 通常****使用,没有主句。 would rather 后句子用虚拟语气 would rather 后接句子时,句子谓语习惯上要用虚拟语气,具体用法为: 1.一般过去时表示现在或将来的愿望 I’d rather you went tomorrow (now). 我宁愿你明天(现在)去。 I’d rather you came next Saturday. 我宁愿你下星期六来。 I’d rather you were happy. 我愿你快乐。 I’d rather she sat next to me. 我宁愿她挨着我坐。 I’d rather Jack left on an earlier train. 我宁愿杰克乘前一班火车走。 You always go without me and l’d rather you didn’t. 你总是不带我去,我可不愿意你这样。 “Shall I open the window? ” “I’d rather you didn’t. ”“我要不要把窗子打开? ” “我看不要打 开好。” 2. 用过去完成时表过去的愿望 I’d rather you hadn’t said it. 我真希望你没有这样说过。 I’d rather you hadn’t done that. 我宁愿你没这样做。 l’d rather you had been / hadn’t been present。我 (宁) 愿你当时在场 / 不在场。 l’d rather he had told / hadn’t told me about it 我 (宁) 愿他告诉了 / 未告诉我这件事。 Katie went by car and I’d rather she hadn’t. 凯蒂是坐汽车去的,我宁愿地不坐汽车去。 as if (though) 从句用虚拟语气 一、基本用法 以 as if (as though)引导的方式状语从句或表语从句,有时用虚拟语气,若表示与现在事 实相反,谓语动词用一般过去时;若表示与过去事实相反,用过去完成时;表示将来的可能 性不大,用 would (might, could)+动词原形: He acts as if he knew me. 他显得认识我似的。 They treat me as though I were a stranger. 他们待我如陌生人。 He talks as if he had been abroad. 他说起话来好像曾经出过国。 二、两点说明 (1) 从句所表示的内容若为事实或可能为事实,也可用陈述语气: It looks as if we’ll be late. 我们似乎要迟到了。 This meat tastes as if it has already gone bad. 这肉吃起来似乎已经坏了。 在现代英语中,有时即使从句内容不是事实,也可能用陈述语气: I feel as if [as though] I’m floating on air. 他感到好像漂浮在空中。 The stuffed dog barked as if it is [were, was] a real one. 玩具狗叫起来像真狗。 (2) 注意 It isn’t as if…的翻译: It isn’t as if he were poor. 他不像穷的样子(或他又不穷)。 It isn’t as if you were going away for good. 又不是你离开不回来了。 否定副词之后的倒装 否定或近似否定副词(往往是时间或频度副词,如 never, rarely, seldom),或是具有否定作 用的副词,如 little, on no account 等。如: Never / Seldom has there been so much protest against the Bomb. 这么强烈的反对原子弹的 ****活动从未 / 很少 / 有过。 Little does he realize how important this meeting is. 他对这个会议的重要性不甚了了。 On no account must you accept any money if he offers it. 他如要给你钱,你可绝不能接受。 当这种副词不在句首时,当然应该用正常词序: There has never / seldom been so much protest against the Bomb. 从未 / 很少发生过这么强烈 的反对原子弹的****活动。 He little realizes how important this meeting is. 他不甚明白这个会议的重要性。 另外,有些含有否定意义的介词短语置于句首时,其后也要用倒装。如: In no case should you give up. 你绝不能放弃。 On no condition should we tell her about it. 我们绝不能把此事告诉她。 On no accounts must this switch be touched.这个开关是绝 不能触摸的。 In [Under] no circumstances will I lend money to him.无论如何我也不会再借钱给他了。 Under no circumstances should you lend him any money. 你无论如何都不该把钱借给他。 No way will I go on working for that ****n. 我不再给那个人工作了。 涉及 not only…but also…的部分倒装 not only…but also…前后连接两个句子时,not only 后的句子要用部分倒装,但 but also 后 的分句不用倒装。如: Not only did he come, but he saw her. 他不仅来了,而且还见到了她。 Not only does she speak Spanish, (but) she also knows how to type. 她不但会说西班牙语,还 会打字呢。 Not only is he a teacher, but he is also a poet. 他不仅是一位教师,而且是一位诗人。 Not only did he speak more correctly, but he spoke more easily. 不仅他讲得更正确,也讲得 更不费劲了。 Not only did they present a musical perfor****nce, but they also gave a brief introduction to the history of Western brass instruments. 他们不但做了音乐表演, 而且简短地介绍了西方铜管乐器的历史。 涉及“only+状语”的部分倒装 当“only+状语”位于句首时,其后习惯上要用部分倒装。其中,only 后的状语可以是副词、 介词短语、从句等。 Only in this way can we learn English. 只有这样才能学会英语。 Only then did I understand what she meant. 只有到那时我才明白她的意思。 Only by shouting was he able to ****ke himself heard. 他只有叫喊才能让别人听到他。 注意,在 only 后作状语的是从句时,从句不要用倒装,要部分倒装的是主句。如: Only when it rains do you feel cool. 只有下雨时才觉得凉爽一点。 Only when he returned home did he realize what had happened. 当他回到家里时,才知道出 了什么事。 Only when we landed did we see how badly the plane had been da****ged. 我们只是在着陆之 后才看到飞机损坏的严重程度。 强调句型考点简介 强调句型是英语语法考试经常涉及的一个考点,这类考题主要涉及以下几个方面: 一是考查强调句型的基本结构,即“It is + 被强调成分 + that / who +其他部分”; 二是考查强调句的疑问句形式,如强调句的一般疑问句形式“Is it + 被强调成分 + that / who +其他部分”以及特殊疑问句形式“疑问词+is it that+其他部分”; 三是考查 not…until…的强调形式“It was not until….that….”。如: It was from Betty that he first heard the news. 这消息他最早是从贝蒂那里听到的。 Was it you who broke the window? 窗子是你打破的吗? It was not until the rain stopped that they started. 直到雨停他们才出发。 How long ago is it that you last saw her? 你上次看见她是多久以前的事? A.句型强调 英语中最常见的强调手段,也是我们必须要掌握的方法就是句型强调,即:强调句型。It is / was + 被强调的部分 + that (who)…如: (1) It was in the room that Li Lei was born. 李蕾出生就在这间****子。 (2) It is Wei Fang who has broken the record. 就是魏方打破了纪录。 B.在使用强调句型时须注意的几个问题: (A) 原句子是现在时或将来时,强调句用 It is + 被强调的部分 + that (who)…; 若原句子 是过去时,强调句用:It was + 被强调的部分 + that (who)… (1) Li Lei’s father will work in America. —It is in America that Li Lei’s father will work. 李蕾 的父亲的工作将就在美国。 (2) I stu****d at this school a few years ago. —It was at this school that I stu****d a few years ago. 几年前我就在这所学校读书。 (B) 即使被强调的部分是复数,It 后面始终用单数形式。如(from ****.yygram****r****) (1) Tom and Lucy gave us much help. —It was Tom and Lucy that gave us much help. 正是汤 姆和露西给了我们很多的帮助。 (2) I saw swans in the lake yesterday. —It was swans that I saw in the lake yesterday. 昨天我 看到在湖里的就是天鹅。 (C) 强调人时,可用 who 代替 that, 但若强调时间、地点、原因、方式时,不能用 when, where, why, how 代替 that。如: (1) It is our teacher who / that helps us ****ke great progress. 正是我们的老师帮助我们取得 了很大的进步。 (2) It is by bus that I go to school every day. 每天我就是乘公共汽车上学。 (D) 在强调 not…until 结构中的时间状语时,应将 not 移到 until 前,再将 not until 部分移 到被强调的位置。如: I didn’t go to bed until twelve o’clock last night. — It was not until twelve o’clock last night that I went to bed. 昨天晚上我一直到十二点才睡。 (E) 强调一般疑问句中的某一成分时,将强调句中的主句用一般疑问语序。如: (1) Do you like English?—It is English that you like? 英语就是你喜欢的吗? (2) Will you go to London?—It is London that you will go to? 你要去的就是伦敦吗? (F)特殊疑问句中只有疑问词可以被强调。句型为:特殊疑问词+be + it that+…? 如: (1) What ****de him so angry?—What is it that ****de him so angry? 是什么东西使他如此生 气? (2) Why did she cry?—Why was it that she cried? 是什么原因使他哭了起来? (G) 强调主语时,who 或 that 后面的谓语形式须与被强调的主语保持一致。如: (1) Lily speaks Chinese very well. —It is Lily who / that speaks Chinese very well. 李丽的汉语 讲得很好。 (2) Children like stories. —It is Children that like stories. 孩子们喜欢故事。 (H) 强调句中的 be 前可用表推测的情态动词:must, can, ****y 等。如: (1) It must be Piney that sent us this present. 肯定是 Piney 给我们寄来了这件礼物。 (2) How can it be that he didn’t pass the exams. 他考试没有通过怎么可能呢? (I) 强调句型不用于强调谓语、表语、since, as 等引导的原因状语从句。如: He is better today since he can walk around without my help. 就不能有下列强调形式: It is better today that he is today since he can walk around without my help. (错) It is since he can walk around without my help that he is better today. (错)
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